I/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ KẾT QUẢ (result)
1. SO + adj / adv + THAT + clause
SUCH + noun + THAT + clause (trong văn nói có thể lược bỏ THAT)
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Ex : He was SO tired THAT he went to bed early .
It was SUCH a difficult exam ( THAT ) he knew he wouldn’t pass it .
2. SO + clause
Ex : It was late, SO he decided to take a taxi home .
3. AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY hoàn toàn có thể dùng để khởi đầu câu .
AND, AS A RESULT được dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong một câu.
Ex : We have invested too much money in this project. CONSEQUENTLY, we are in financial difficulties .
His wife left him, AND / AS A RESULT, he became very depressed .
4. THEREFORE thường được dùng ở giữa câu ( ngoài những cũng hoàn toàn có thể dùng ở đầu hoặc cuối câu )
Ex : We feel, THEREFORE, that a decision must be made .
II/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ LÝ DO (reason)
1. SINCE / AS / SEEING THAT + clause ( đứng trước mệnh đề chính )
Ex : SEEING THAT / SINCE / AS we arrived late, all the best seats had been taken .
2. BECAUSE + clause ( đứng sau mệnh đề chính )
Ex : We couldn’t find a good seat BECAUSE all the best ones had been taken .
3. BECAUSE OF / AS A RESULT OF / OWING TO / DUE TO + noun / noun phrase .
Ex : We were unable to go by train BECAUSE OF the rail strike .
Many of the deaths of older people are DUE TO heart attacks .
III/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ MỤC ĐÍCH (purpose)
1. ( NOT ) TO / IN ODER ( NOT ) TO / SO AS ( NOT ) TO + verb nguyên mẫu
Notice : trong văn viết ( formal ) không nên dùng ( NOT ) TO
Ex : We came to the countryside TO find some peace and quiet .
Handle the flowers carefully IN ORDER NOT TO damage them .
2. SO THAT / IN ORDER THAT + clause ( thường dùng can, could, might, would )
Ex : He chose this university SO THAT / IN ORDER THAT he could study Physics .
IV/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ SỰ ĐỐI LẬP (contrast)
1. ALTHOUGH / EVEN IF / EVEN THOUGH + clause ( even though chỉ dùng trong văn nói )
Ex : ALTHOUGH / EVEN IF / EVEN THOUGH the car is old, it is still reliable .
2. DESPITE / IN SPITE OF + noun / noun phrase / V_ing
DESPITE THE FACT THAT / IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + clause
Ex : DESPITE / IN SPITE OF the rain, I went for a walk .
We enjoyed our walking holiday DESPITE THE FACT THAT / IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT it was tiring .
3. HOWEVER + clause
THOUGH thường dùng trong văn nói, và đứng ở cuối câu.
Ex : Buying a house is expensive. It is, HOWEVER, a good investment .
It’s a big decision to make, THOUGH .
4. BUT / WHILE / WHEREAS thường dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong câu .
Ex : John is very rich BUT / WHILE / WHEREAS his friends are extremely poor .
5. ON THE ONE HAND / ON THE OTHER HAND dùng cho một cặp câu diễn đạt 2 ý trái ngược nhau .
Ex : ON THE ONE HAND these computers are expensive. ON THE OTHER HAND they are exactly what we want .
V/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ THỜI GIAN
1. WHEN / WHILE / AS / AFTER + clause
Ex : WHEN / WHILE / AS I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident .
He went out AFTER he’d finished work .
2. WHENEVER / EVERY TIME + clause
Ex : WHENEVER / EVERY TIME I see him, he’s driving a different car .
3. FIRST / THEN / LATER etc. dùng để trình làng những mốc thời hạn .
Ex : FIRST he closed all the windows, THEN he locked the doors. LATER he came back to check that everything was all right .
4. DURING / ALL THROUGH / THROUGHOUT + noun phrase .
Ex : DURING / ALL THROUGH the summer we get a lot of visitors .
It rained heavily THROUGHOUT the night .
VI/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ ĐIỀU KIỆN (condition)
1. EVEN IF / AS LONG AS / UNLESS + clause
Ex : EVEN IF you are born rich, life is still difficult .
You can borrow the car AS LONG AS you’re careful with it .
You can’t come with me UNLESS you promise to keep quiet .
2. WHETHER … OR NOT được dùng làm câu hỏi gián tiếp .
Sau giới từ và / hoặc trước động từ TO V tất cả chúng ta sử dụng WHETHER chứ không dùng IF .
Ex : I don’t know WHETHER you have met him OR NOT .
It depends ON WHETHER the government takes any action .
The organizers will decide WHETHER TO IMPOSE fines .
3. IN CASE + clause
IN CASE OF + noun(dùng trong văn viết)
Ex : Take this umbrella IN CASE it rains .
IN CASE OF emergency, break the glass .
VII/ LIÊN TỪ DÙNG ĐỂ THÊM THÔNG TIN HOẶC NHẤN MẠNH
1. BESIDES / IN ADDITION ( TO THAT ) / FURTHERMORE + clause ( đứng sau mệnh đề chính ) .
Trong văn viết nên dùng FURTHERMORE.MOREOVER được dùng ở đầu hoặc giữa câu nhằm đưa thêm thông tin.
Ex : I don’t really want to go out tonight. BESIDES, there’s a good film on TV .
We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. FURTHERMORE, we have been overcharged for our last order .
This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is, MOREOVER, extremely interesting .
2. NOT ONLY … BUT ALSO / AS WELL
Notice: BUT ALSO + noun / noun phrase ; BUT + S + V + ALSO
NOT ONLY khi đứng đầu câu sẽ mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh, sử dụng cấu trúc này cần đảo ngữ cho vế NOT ONLY và vế còn lại sẽ dùng BUT + S + V + ALSO .
Ex : The painting is NOT ONLY valuable BUT ALSO a work of art .
She NOT ONLY writes novels BUT ( she ) lectures AS WELL .
The house was NOT ONLY large BUT ( was / it was ) ALSO modern .
NOT ONLY is the restaurant superb BUT it is ALSO expensive .
3. AS WELL AS + noun / phrase / V_ing
Ex : They robbed a ngân hàng AS WELL AS a post office .
AS WELL AS being sent to prison, they were fined USD 2000 .
4. TOO / AS WELL / NOT EITHER thường dùng trong văn nói, và đặt ở cuối mệnh đề phụ .
Ex : They like Indian food. I like Indian food TOO / AS WELL .
They aren’t very generous people. They have NOT got any friends EITHER .
Category: Tiếng Anh