A. Looked at in one way, everyone knows what intelligence is; looked at in another way, no one does. In other words, people a

A. Looked at in one way, everyone knows what intelligence is; looked at in another way, no one does. In other words, people all have unconscious notions known as implicit theories of intelligence, but no one knows for certain what it actually is. This chapter addresses how people conceptualize intelligence, whatever it may actually be.
But why should we even care what people think intelligence is, as opposed only to valuing whatever it actually is? There are at least four seasons peoples conceptions of intelligence matter.

B. First, implicit theories of intelligence drive the way in which people perceive and evaluate their own intelligence and that of others. To better understand the judgments people make about their own and others abilities, it is useful to learn about peoples implicit theories. For example, parents implicit theories of their childrens language development will determine at what ages they will be willing to make various corrections in their childrens speech. More generally, parents implicit theories of intelligence will determine at what ages they believe their children are ready to perform various cognitive tasks. Job interviewers will make hiring decisions on the basis of their implicit theories of intelligence. People will decide who to be friends with on the basis of such theories. In sum, knowledge about implicit theories of intelligence is important because this knowledge is so often used by people to make judgments in the course of their everyday lives.

C. Second, the implicit theories of scientific investigators ultimately give rise to their explicit theories. Thus it is useful to find out what these implicit theories are. Implicit theories provide a framework that is useful in defining the general scope of a phenomenon especially a not-well-understood phenomenon. These implicit theories can suggest what aspects of the phenomenon have been more or less attended to in previous investigations.

D. Third, implicit theories can be useful when an investigator suspects that existing explicit theories are wrong or misleading. If an investigation of implicit theories reveals little correspondence between the extant implicit and explicit theories, the implicit theories may be wrong. But the possibility also needs to be taken into account that the explicit theories are wrong and in need of correction or supplementation. For example, some implicit theories of intelligence suggest the need for expansion of some of our explicit theories of the construct.
Reading Passage 1 has four sections, A-D
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

1. information about how non-scientists assumptions about intelligence influence their behavior towards others (1)
2. a reference to lack of clarity over the definition of intelligence (2)
3. the point that a researchers implicit and explicit theories may be very different (3)



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